Eliphaz (Job)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Fresco from the Cathedral of the Annunciation depicting Job and his friends.For the first-born son of Esau, see Eliphaz.
Eliphaz is called a Temanite (Job 4:1). He appears in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible.
Eliphaz appears mild and modest; in his first reply to Job's complaints, he argues that those who are truly good are never entirely forsaken by Providence, but that punishment may justly be inflicted for secret sins. He denies that any man is innocent and censures Job for asserting his freedom from guilt. Eliphaz exhorts Job to confess any concealed iniquities to alleviate his punishment. His arguments are well supported but God declares at the end of the book that Eliphaz believed an erroneous view of divine dispensations. Job offers a sacrifice to God for Eliphaz's error.
Eliphaz, the first of the three visitors of Job (Job ii. 11), surnamed "the Temanite"; supposed to have come from Teman, an important city of Edom (Amos i. 12; Obad. 9; Jer. xlix. 20). Thus Eliphaz appears as the representative of the wisdom of the Edomites, which, according to Obad. 8, Jer. xlix. 7, and Baruch iii. 22, was famous in antiquity.
The name Eliphaz "for the spokesman of Edomite wisdom may have been suggested to the author of Job by the tradition which gave this name to Esau's son, the father of Theman (Gen. xxxvi. 11; I Chron. i. 35, 36). In the arguments that pass between Job and his friends, it is Eliphaz that opens each of the three series of discussions.
His primary belief was that the righteous do not perish; the wicked alone suffer, and in measure as they have sinned (Job iv. 7-9). This argument is, in part, rooted in what he believes to have been a personal revelation he received through a dream (Job iv. 12-16): Can mankind be just before God? Can a man be pure before his Maker? He puts no trust even in His servants; And against His angels He charges error. How much more those who dwell in houses of clay (Job iv. 17-19a).
After mulling it over, Job responds to this "revelation" of Eliphaz in chapter 9 verse 2, "“In truth I know that this is so; but how can a man be in the right before God? If one wished to dispute with Him, he could not answer Him once in a thousand times." Eliphaz refers to his revelation again for emphasis in Job 15:14-16.
Bildad also refers to Eliphaz's revelation in chapter 25, although he presents the concept as his own. Job rebukes him for it in chapter 26, "What a help you are to the weak! How you have saved the arm without strength! What counsel you have given to one without wisdom! What helpful insight you have abundantly provided! To whom have you uttered words? And whose spirit was expressed through you?" Job pokes fun at Bildad asking him what spirit revealed it to him because he recognizes the argument as Eliphaz's spiritual revelation.
Although quick-witted, and quick to respond, Eliphaz loses his composure in chapter 22, accusing Job of oppressing widows and orphans, a far cry from how he had originally described Job in chapter 4, "Behold you have admonished many, and you have strengthened weak hands. Your words have helped the tottering to stand, and you have strengthened feeble knees. But now it has come to you, and you are impatient; it touches you, and you are dismayed. Is not your fear of God your confidence, and the integrity of your ways your hope?"
Eliphaz also misconstrues Job's message in chapter 22:12-14 as he scrambles to summarize Job's thoughts from chapter 21. "You say, ‘What does God know? Can He judge through the thick darkness? Clouds are a hiding place for Him, so that He cannot see; And He walks on the vault of heaven.'"
Job wasn't arguing that God could not prevent evil. Job was observing that in this life God often chooses not prevent evil. Conventional wisdom told Eliphaz that God should immediately punish the wicked as that would be the just thing to do. Job, however, saw it differently, and in chapter 24 verse 1, Job laments. "Why does the Almighty not set times for judgment? Why must those who know him look in vain for such days?"
Job yearns for the justice Eliphaz claims exists - an immediate punishment of the wicked. However, that simply didn't hold true according to Job's observations. Nevertheless, Job doesn't question God's ultimate justice. He knows justice will eventually be served. In chapter 27, Job asks, "For what hope have the godless when they are cut off, when God takes away their life? Does God listen to their cry when distress comes upon them?" Here, Job suspects there will be a final judgement.
Teman (Edom)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search Teman (Hebrew: תמין), was the name of an Edomite clan and of its eponym, according to the Bible and an ancient biblical town of Arabia Petraea. The term is also traditionally applied to Yemenite Jews.
In the Book of Genesis, the name Teman is referred to a son of Eliphaz, Esau's eldest son. Job's friend Eliphaz was a Temani (Job 2:11).
LocationAccording to bibleatlas.org and author W. Ewing, Teman or te'-man (תימן) means "on the right," i.e. "south" (Thaiman) and it is the name of a district and town in the land of Edom, named after Teman the grandson of Esau, the son of his firstborn, Eliphaz. A duke Teman is named among the chiefs or clans of Edom. He does not however appear first, in the place of the firstborn. Husham of the land of the Temanites was one of the ancient kings of Edom. From Book of Obadiah Obad 1:9 we gather that Teman was in the land of Esau (Edom). In Book of Amos Amos 1:12 it is named along with Bozrah, the capital of Edom. In the Book of Ezekiel Ezekiel 25:13 desolation is denounced upon Edom: "From Teman even unto Dedan shall they fall by the sword." Dedan (modern Arabic Al-`Ula) being in the South, Teman must be sought in the North. Eusebius' Onomasticon knows a district in the Gebalene region called Theman, and also a town with the same name, occupied by a Roman garrison, 15 miles from Petra. Unfortunately no indication of direction is given. No trace of the name has yet been found. It may have been on the road from Elath to Bozrah. The inhabitants of Teman seem to have been famous for their wisdom (Jeremiah Jeremiah 49:7, Book of Obadiah Obad 1:8). Eliphaz the Temanite was chief of the comforters of Job Job 2:11, etc.). The manner in which the city is mentioned by the prophets, now by itself, and again as standing for Edom, shows how important it must have been in their time.
According some biblical scholars and commendators Teman was a city in the Land of Uz. In "The Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible" it is written: "Throughout almost the whole of Hebrew history Uz or Idumea was regarded by the Jews in the same light of elegance and accomplishment, as Greece by the Romans, and Teman, the native city of Eliphaz, as the Athens of Arabia Petrea".
The Jewish Encyclopedia points out that the biblical genealogy and the references of the name "Teman": "proves that Teman was one of the most important of the Edomite tribes, and this is confirmed by the fact that "Teman" is used as a synonym for Edom itself (Amos i. 12; Obad. 9; comp. Jer. xlix. 20, 22; Hab. iii. 3). The Temanites were famed for their wisdom (Jer. xlix. 7; Baruch iii. 22)".
The exact location of Teman remains unknown, but there is a possibility that if the city of Teman ever existed as a more permanent location of shepherds during the time of Job, present-day Ma'an (Arabic: معان) in Jordan could be its successor, due to the phonetic resemblance of their names and the location of Ma'an in the likely location of ancient Edom. The possible location of Teman given by bibleatlas.org is in the vicinity of the Jordanian town Ma'an.
Bildad (bil'-dad, "Bel has loved"), the Shuhite, was one of Job's three friends who visited the patriarch in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Job. He was a descendant of Shuah, son of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:1 - 25:2), whose family lived in the deserts of Arabia, or a resident of the district. In speaking with Job, his intent was consolation, but he became an accuser, asking Job what he has done to deserve God's wrath.
SpeechesThe three speeches of Bildad are contained in Job 8 , Job 18 and Job 25. For substance, they were largely an echo of what Eliphaz, the Temanite, had maintained, but charged with somewhat increased vehemence because he deemed Job's words so impious and wrathful. Bildad was the first to attribute Job's calamity to actual wickedness; albeit indirectly, by accusing his children (who were destroyed, Job 1:19) of sin to warrant their punishment (Job 8:4). His third speech marked the silencing of the friends.
ShuahFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search Shuah (Hebrew: שוח "ditch; swimming; humiliation"), also known as Sous, was, according to the Bible, the sixth son of Abraham, the patriarch of the Israelites, and Keturah whom he wed after the death of Sarah. He was the youngest of Keturah's sons; the others were Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, and Ishbak.
Apparent and approximate emigration patterns of Abraham’s children by Katurah, excepting those about whom not enough is known to draw a conclusion.Josephus writes of the brothers that "Abraham contrived to settle them in colonies; and they took possession of Troglodytis, and the country of Arabia the Happy, as far as it reaches to the Red Sea." In all probability, Abraham tried to keep them apart from Isaac to avoid conflict while fulfilling God's commission to spread out and inhabit the globe. But unlike his brothers, Shuah seems to have turned northward and travelled into northern Mesopotamia, in what is now the northern region of modern day Syria. As evidenced by cuneiform texts, the land seems to have been named after him, being known as the land of Sûchu which lies to the south of ancient Hittite capital of Carchemish on the Euphrates river.
The Bible also records that Job's friend Bildad was a Shuhite.
Naamathite (na'-a-ma-thit) is the Gentile name  and Old Testament designation given to Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11; 11:1 ; 20:1 ; 42:9), who came from the city of Naamah, in Canaan.
ZopharFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Zophar (disambiguation).
Illustration of Job and his friends from the Kiev Psalter of 1397. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012)
In the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Book of Job, Zophar or Tzofar (צוֹפַר "Chirping; rising early", Standard Hebrew Tsofar, Tiberian Hebrew Ṣôp̄ar) the Naamathite is one of the three friends of Job who visits to comfort him during his illness. His comments can be found in Job chapter 11 and 20. He suggests that Job's suffering could be divine punishment, and goes into great detail about the consequences of living a life of sin.
SpeechesUnlike friends Bildad and Eliphaz, Zophar only speaks twice to Job. He is the most impetuous and dogmatic of the three. Zophar is the first to accuse Job directly of wickedness; averring indeed that his punishment is too good for him (Job 11:6); he rebukes Job's impious presumption in trying to find out the unsearchable secrets of God (Job 11:7 - 12); and yet, like the rest of the friends, promises peace and restoration on condition of penitence and putting away iniquity (Job 11:13 - 19).
Elihu is a character in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Job. According to the Book of Job, Elihu is one of Job's friends, descended from Nahor (Job 32:2, 34:1). He is said to have descended from Buz who may be from the line of Abraham (Genesis 22:20-21 mentions Buz as a nephew of Abraham).
Synopsis of Elihu's MonologuesHe is mentioned late in the text, Chapter 32, and opens his discourse with more modesty than displayed by the other antagonists. Elihu differs from the other antagonists in that his monologues discuss divine providence, which he insists are full of wisdom and mercy, that the righteous have their share of prosperity in this life, no less than the wicked, that God is supreme and that it becomes us to acknowledge and submit to that supremacy since "the Creator wisely rules the world he made". He draws instances of benignity from, for example, the constant wonders of creation and of the seasons. Chapters 32 through 37 of the Book of Job consist entirely of Elihu's speech to Job. He is never mentioned again after the end of this speech.
Possible pseudonymity of the characterThe speeches of Elihu (who is not mentioned in the prologue) contradict the fundamental opinions expressed by the 'friendly accusers' in the central body of the text, that it is impossible that the righteous should suffer, all pain being a punishment for some sin. Elihu states that suffering may be decreed for the righteous as a protection against greater sin, for moral betterment and warning, and to elicit greater trust and dependence on a merciful, compassionate God in the midst of adversity.
Some question the status of Elihu's interruption and didactic sermon because of his sudden appearance and disappearance from the text. He is not mentioned in Job 2:11, in which Job's friends are introduced, nor is he mentioned at all in the epilogue, 42:7-10, in which God expresses anger at Job's friends. But Elihu's preface in chapter 32 indicates that he has been listening intently to the conversation between Job and the other three men. He also admits his status as one who is not an elder (32:6-7.) As Elihu's monologue reveals, his anger against the three older men was so strong he could not contain himself (32:2-4.)